Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir: A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

Mark G. Lewis, Sandro Norelli, Matt Collins, Maria L. Barreca, Nunzio Iraci, Barbara Chirullo, Jake Yalley-Ogunro, Jack Greenhouse, Fausto Titti, Enrico Garaci, Andrea Savarino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs) and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) class.Results: In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (PMPA) were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy.Conclusions: In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding) and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21
JournalRetrovirology
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 16 2010

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Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Animal Models
Tenofovir
Viral Load
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Primates
Therapeutics
Molecular Docking Simulation
T-Lymphocytes
Integrases
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Macaca
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Raltegravir Potassium
HIV-1
Catalytic Domain
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Viruses
Amino Acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir : A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. / Lewis, Mark G.; Norelli, Sandro; Collins, Matt; Barreca, Maria L.; Iraci, Nunzio; Chirullo, Barbara; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake; Greenhouse, Jack; Titti, Fausto; Garaci, Enrico; Savarino, Andrea.

In: Retrovirology, Vol. 7, 21, 16.03.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lewis, Mark G. ; Norelli, Sandro ; Collins, Matt ; Barreca, Maria L. ; Iraci, Nunzio ; Chirullo, Barbara ; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake ; Greenhouse, Jack ; Titti, Fausto ; Garaci, Enrico ; Savarino, Andrea. / Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir : A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. In: Retrovirology. 2010 ; Vol. 7.
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abstract = "Background: In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs) and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) class.Results: In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (PMPA) were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy.Conclusions: In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding) and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.",
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AU - Lewis, Mark G.

AU - Norelli, Sandro

AU - Collins, Matt

AU - Barreca, Maria L.

AU - Iraci, Nunzio

AU - Chirullo, Barbara

AU - Yalley-Ogunro, Jake

AU - Greenhouse, Jack

AU - Titti, Fausto

AU - Garaci, Enrico

AU - Savarino, Andrea

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