Response of Primary Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Dermal Keratinocytes to Thermal Printer Materials In Vitro

Eva Schmelzer, Patrick Over, Bruno Gridelli, Jörg C. Gerlach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advancement in thermal three-dimensional printing techniques has greatly increased the possible applications of various materials in medical applications and tissue engineering. Yet, potential toxic effects on primary human cells have been rarely investigated. Therefore, we compared four materials commonly used in thermal printing for bioengineering, namely thermally printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, MED610, polycarbonate, and polylactic acid, and investigated their effects on primary human adult skin epidermal keratinocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro. We investigated indirect effects on both cell types caused by potential liberation of soluble substances from the materials, and also analyzed BM-MSCs in direct contact with the materials. We found that even in culture without direct contact with the materials, the culture with MED610 (and to a lesser extent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) significantly affected keratinocytes, reducing cell numbers and proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and increasing glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and expression of differentiation-associated genes. BM-MSCs had decreased metabolic activity, and exhibited increased cell death in direct culture on the materials. MED610 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene induced the strongest expression of genes associated to differentiation and estrogen receptor activation. In conclusion, we found strong cell-type-specific effects of the materials, suggesting that materials for applications in regenerative medicine should be carefully selected not only based on their mechanical properties but also based on their cell-type-specific biological effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-167
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Biocompatibility
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell
  • Keratinocyte
  • MED610
  • Thermal printer material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Response of Primary Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Dermal Keratinocytes to Thermal Printer Materials In Vitro'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this