OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive role of response on dynamic contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of visible local lesions in the setting of salvage radiotherapy (sRT) after radical prostatectomy.
METHODS: All patients referred for sRT for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy from February 2014 to September 2016 were considered eligible if they had been restaged with DCE-MRI and had been found to have a visible lesion in the prostatic bed, but no distant/nodal disease on choline positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT). Eligible patients were contacted during follow-up and offered reimaging with serial DCE-MRI until lesion resolution. Complete response (CR) was defined as the disappearance of the target lesion on DCE-MRI; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence was defined as a 0.2 ng/mL PSA rise above the nadir. Median follow-up after sRT was 41.5 months (range, 12.1-61.2 months).
RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients agreed to undergo repeated DCE-MRI for a total of 64 studied lesions. Overall, 57 lesions (89.1%) showed a CR after 1 (51 patients) or 2 (6 patients) scans, while 7 lesions did not show any change (no response [NR]). At 42 months, no evidence of biochemical disease (bNED) survival was 74.7±6.4% and 64.3±21.0% for patients with CR and NR lesions, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 3.181; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.157-64.364; p = 0.451). When only patients treated with sRT without androgen deprivation were selected (n = 41), bNED survival rates at 42 months were 72.1±8.0% and 0, respectively (HR, 52.830; 95% CI, 1.893-1474.110; p = 0.020).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients whose lesions disappear during follow-up have a better outcome than those with unchanged lesions after sRT alone.