We have previously reported that CCR5-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1; R5), but not CXCR4-restricted (X4) virus, efficiently replicates in T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2, or Th0 polyclonal T cells obtained from human umbilical cord blood (CB lines). The X4 virus restriction was env-dependent but did not occur at the level of viral entry. Here, we describe that in contrast to these monotropic HIVs, primary HIV-1 isolates capable of using CCR5 or CXCR4 indifferently for entry (i.e., R5X4 viruses) efficiently replicated in Th2 but not in Th1 CB lines. Although Th1 cells secreted significantly higher amounts of the three CCR5-binding chemokines in comparison with Th2 cells, this restriction was not explained by a defective infection of Th1 cells. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) down-regulated CCR5 in Th1 cells and inhibited, whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) up-regulated CXCR4 and enhanced the spreading of R5 and R5X4 viruses in polarized CB lines. However, both cytokines did not rescue the replication of X4 and dualtropic viruses in both types of CB lines or in Th1 cells, respectively, whereas addition of antiIL-4- or anti-IFN-γ-neutralizing antibodies did not activate virus expression. These findings together suggest the existence of post-entry restriction pathways influenced by gp120 Env/chemokine coreceptor interaction that may significantly contribute to the superior capacity of R5 and R5X4 HIV-1 strains to spread in vivo in comparison to X4 monotropic viruses.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Leukocyte Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 1 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology