Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Intravesical Chemohyperthermia with Mitomycin C Versus Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for Adjuvant Treatment of Patients with Intermediate- and High-risk Non-Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Tom J H Arends, Ofer Nativ, Massimo Maffezzini, Ottavio De Cobelli, G. Canepa, Fabrizio Verweij, Boaz Moskovitz, Antoine G. van der Heijden, J. Alfred Witjes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Despite adjuvant intravesical therapy, recurrences in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are still high; therefore, new treatment options are needed. The use of chemohyperthermia (CHT) as an alternative treatment is expanding in Europe. To date, however, there has been a lack of prospective randomised data. Objective: To compare CHT using mitomycin C (MMC) with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as adjuvant treatment for intermediate- and high-risk NMIBC. Design, setting, and participants: Between 2002 and 2012, 190 NMIBC patients were randomised in this controlled, open-label, multicentre trial for 1-yr CHT (six weekly treatments and six maintenance treatments) and 1-yr BCG immunotherapy (six weekly treatments and three weekly maintenance treatments at months 3, 6, and 12). Patients and physicians giving the interventions were aware of assignment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00384891). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary end point was 24-mo recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses in all papillary NMIBC patients (n = 147). Analyses were done with the log-rank test and Fisher exact test. All tests were two-sided. Results and limitations: The 24-mo ITT RFS was 78.1% in the CHT group compared with 64.8% in the BCG group (p = 0.08). The 24-mo RFS in the PP analysis was 81.8% in the CHT group compared with 64.8% in the BCG group (p = 0.02). Progression rates were

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Urology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2016

Keywords

  • BCG
  • Device-assisted therapy
  • Hyperthermia
  • Intravesical chemotherapy
  • Mitomycin-C
  • Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • Radiofrequency
  • Randomised controlled trial
  • Recurrence rate
  • Thermochemotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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