Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock: Experimental model comparing normal saline, dextran, and hypertonic saline solutions

Osvaldo Chiara, Paolo Pelosi, Luca Brazzi, Nicola Bottino, Paolo Taccone, Stefania Cimbanassi, Marco Segala, Luciano Gattinoni, Thomas Scalea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare the effectiveness of normal saline, dextran, hypertonic, and hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions in hemorrhagic shock. Design: Laboratory investigation. Setting: University hospital, Emergency Surgery and Intensive Care staff. Subjects: Thirty-two large white female pigs. Interventions: Routine care included: anesthesia and sedation (ketamine 10 mg/kg, droperidol 0.25 mg/kg, diazepam 0.7 mg/kg, fentanyl 0.006 mg/kg, 2% enflurane, 20% nitrous oxide, pancuronium bromide 0.13 mg/kg); volume-controlled ventilation (Paco2 35-40 torr; 4.7-5.4 kPa); cannulation of right carotid artery and pulmonary artery. Three flow probes (subdiaphragmatic aorta, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery) and regional venous catheters (superior mesenteric vein, right renal vein) were positioned. Animals were bled to 45 mm Hg for 1 hr and resuscitated with four different fluids and blood to normal aortic blood flow and hemoglobin. Measurements and Main Results: Mean arterial pressure and blood flow through abdominal aorta (V̇aor), mesenteric artery (V̇mes), and renal artery (V̇ren) were continuously monitored. Cardiac output, systemic and regional oxygen delivery (Ḋ02, Ḋ02mes, Ḋ02ren), and consumption (V̇02, V̇02mes, V̇02ren) were recorded every 30 mins. Baseline V̇aor was restored with different amounts of fluids in the four groups: normal saline (91.35 ± 22.18 mL/kg); dextran (16.24 ± 4.42 mL/kg); hypertonic (13.70 ± 1.44 mL/kg); and hypertonic-hyperoncotic (9.11 ± 1.20 mL/kg). The amount of sodium load was less using dextran and hypertonic-hyperoncotic and sodium levels were only transiently increased after hypertonic infusion. Mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were normalized in all groups. Animals resuscitated with normal saline and dextran showed increased pulmonary artery pressures. Ḋ02 was significantly higher after hypertonic-hyperoncotic infusion, because of reduced hemodilution. Hypertonic and hypertonic-hyperoncotic normalized V̇mes, Ḋ02mes, V̇02mes, V̇ren, and Ḋ02ren, whereas normal saline and dextran did not achieve this result. At the end of the experiment, hypertonic-hyperoncotic maintained mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and Ḋ02 until the end of observation in contrast to normal saline, dextran, and hypertonic. Conclusions: Resuscitation with a small volume of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution allows systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic and oxygen transport recovery, without an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. It only transiently increased sodium concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1915-1922
Number of pages8
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2003


  • Dextran
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Hypertonic solution
  • Splanchnic blood flow
  • Splanchnic oxygen transport
  • Volume resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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