Background/Aims: Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating tumour with a poor prognosis. An efficient therapy is unavailable in unoperable patients and new drugs are widely sought for and required. Resveratrol (RES) is a natural molecule with a reported anticancer effect, evaluated on different tumour cell lines. We tested the efficacy of RES on a cholangiocarcinoma cell line for the first time. Methods: We used the human SK-ChA-1 cell line, cultured in the classical two-dimensional model and in the three-dimensional spheroids. After RES exposure morphology, cell viability (colony-forming assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 medium releases, cellular transglutaminase activity, karyotype and cell cycle were evaluated. Results: Resveratrol inhibited cell growth in both the cell culture systems used (from - 15 to - 80% vs untreated controls) and induced a 40-fold increase of LDH and ALP activities in the culture medium. Also, transglutaminase (TG) activity increased in the cell lysates, together with a cell cycle perturbation characterised by an accumulation in the G1/S phase. Karyotype and CA 19-9 expression were not influenced by the treatment. Conclusions: The observed cytotoxic effect of RES on the human cholangiocarcinoma SK-ChA-1 cell line cultured two- and three-dimensionally suggests to further analyse its chemotherapic/ chemopreventive possibilities for this kind of cancer.
- Multicellular tumour spheroids
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