Retinoid-induced chromatin structure alterations in the retinoic acid receptor β2 promoter

Nisan Bhattacharyya, Anup Dey, Saverio Minucci, Andreas Zimmer, Sam John, Gordon Hager, Keiko Ozato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transcription of the retinoic acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) gene is induced by retinoic acid (RA) in mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. Here we studied RA-induced chromatin structure alterations in the endogenous RARβ2 promoter and in an integrated, multicopy RARβ2 promoter in EC cells. RA markedly increased restriction site accessibility within the promoter, including a site near the RA responsive element (RARE) to which the nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor (RXR)-RAR heterodimer binds. These changes coincided with RA-induced alterations in the DNase I hypersensitivity pattern in and around the promoter. These changes became undetectable upon removal of RA, which coincided with the extinction of transcription. Analyses with receptor-selective ligands and an antagonist showed that increase in restriction site accessibility correlates with transcriptional activation, which parallels the RA-induced in vivo footprint of the promoter. Despite these changes, the micrococcal nuclease digestion profile of this promoter was not altered by RA. These results indicate that concurrent with the binding of the RXR-RAR heterodimer to the RARE, the local chromatin structure undergoes dynamic, reversible changes in and around the promoter without globally affecting the nucleosomal organization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6481-6490
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology


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