Background A retrograde approach improves the success rate of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Objectives The authors describe the European experience with and outcomes of retrograde PCI revascularization for coronary CTOs. Methods Follow-up data were collected from 1,395 patients with 1,582 CTO lesions enrolled between January 2008 and December 2012 for retrograde CTO PCI at 44 European centers. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and further revascularization. Results The mean patient age was 62.0 ± 10.4 years; 88.5% were men. Procedural and clinical success rates were 75.3% and 71.2%, respectively. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 24.7 ± 15.0 months. Compared with patients with failed retrograde PCI, successfully revascularized patients showed lower rates of cardiac death (0.6% vs. 4.3%, respectively; p <0.001), myocardial infarction (2.3% vs. 5.4%, respectively; p = 0.001), further revascularization (8.6% vs. 23.6%, respectively; p <0.001), and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (8.7% vs. 23.9%, respectively; p <0.001). Female sex (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 3.18; p = 0.001), prior PCI (HR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.60; p = 0.011), low left ventricular ejection fraction (HR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.83; p = 0.011), J-CTO (Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan) score ≥3 (HR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.27; p = 0.002), and procedural failure (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.72 to 3.57; p <0.001) were independent predictors of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at long-term follow-up. Conclusions The number of retrograde procedures in Europe has increased, with high percents of success, low rates of major complications, and good long-term outcomes.
- chronic total occlusions
- J-CTO score
- retrograde PCI revascularization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine