Germ-cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) are rare, but have a high social impact. In fact they represent no more than 1% of male tumors (about 700 new cases per year in Italy), but electively occur in young patients, 20 to 40 years old, during their fully mature social and working life. More than 80% of patients are cured and return to a normal social, sexual, and working life. Improvements achieved both in diagnosis, with the use of scans (CT, MRI, US and recently PET) and of serum tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), beta-fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin (b-HCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mainly in treatment, through the amelioration of radiotherapy and surgical techniques and, especially, with the introduction of Cisplatin, Etoposide and Ifosfamide in chemotherapic regimens, have made germ-cell tumor a model of "curable disease". Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has indications in patients with clinical stage I (CS1) as well as in advanced disease, where it is integrated in the multimodality treatment. Anatomical studies, as well as a long-term experience, have gradually but consistently modified the surgical techniques of RPLND. Currently, "nerve sparing" RPLND represents a safe management of CS1 nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor with minimal morbidity and excellent outcomes. Nonetheless, surveillance and adjuvant chemotherapy are as effective as RPLND, but, in our opinion, associated with some discomforts for the patients. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (Lap-RPLND) is gaining popularity as a minimally invasive staging procedure for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma, but its therapeutic role is still under investigation.
|Translated title of the contribution||[Retroperitoneal surgery in the treatment of germ-cell tumors of the testis: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)].|
|Number of pages||4|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2010|
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