BACKGROUND. Polidocanol sclerotherapy is a well-established therapeutic modality for the treatment of venous malformations. Systemic complications are extremely rare. OBJECTIVE. To report a case of cardiac complication after polidocanol injection of peripheral venous malformation. METHODS. A case report and a review of the English language literature using a published MEDLINE search strategy. RESULTS. A patient undergoing polidocanol sclerotherapy for a symptomatic venous malformation of the right inferior limb developed cardiac arrest shortly after injection of the sclerosing agent which was promptly reversed. CONCLUSION. Systemic complications following sclerotherapy may occur even when the sclerosant is injected in peripheral veins or venous malformations. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of uncommon but life-threatening adverse effects.
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