OBJECTIVES: Cognitive frailty, a condition describing the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment, has been recently defined by an international consensus group. We estimated the predictive role of a "reversible" cognitive frailty model on incident dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality in nondemented older individuals. We verified if vascular risk factors or depressive symptoms could modify this predictive role.
DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study with 3.5- and 7-year of median follow-up.
SETTING: Eight Italian municipalities included in the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.
PARTICIPANTS: In 2150 older individuals from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, we operationalized reversible cognitive frailty with the presence of physical frailty and pre-mild cognitive impairment subjective cognitive decline, diagnosed with a self-report measure based on item 14 of the Geriatric Depression Scale.
MEASUREMENTS: Incidence of dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: Over a 3.5-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-5.18], particularly vascular dementia (VaD), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.83). Over a 7-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.12-4.03), particularly VaD, and all-cause mortality (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-2.00). Vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not have any effect modifier on the relationship between reversible cognitive frailty and incident dementia and all-cause mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: A model of reversible cognitive frailty was a short- and long-term predictor of all-cause mortality and overall dementia, particularly VaD. The absence of vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not modify the predictive role of reversible cognitive frailty on these outcomes.
|Journal||Journal of the American Medical Directors Association|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2017|
- Journal Article