Reversible Cognitive Frailty, Dementia, and All-Cause Mortality. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging

Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Emanuele Scafato, Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Bruno P. Imbimbo, Angela D'Amato, Rosanna Tortelli, Andrea Schilardi, Lucia Galluzzo, Claudia Gandin, Marzia Baldereschi, Antonio Di Carlo, Domenico Inzitari, Antonio Daniele, Carlo Sabbà, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza, Francesco Cacciatore, Franco Rengo, Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging Working Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Cognitive frailty, a condition describing the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment, has been recently defined by an international consensus group. We estimated the predictive role of a "reversible" cognitive frailty model on incident dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality in nondemented older individuals. We verified if vascular risk factors or depressive symptoms could modify this predictive role.

DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study with 3.5- and 7-year of median follow-up.

SETTING: Eight Italian municipalities included in the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

PARTICIPANTS: In 2150 older individuals from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, we operationalized reversible cognitive frailty with the presence of physical frailty and pre-mild cognitive impairment subjective cognitive decline, diagnosed with a self-report measure based on item 14 of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

MEASUREMENTS: Incidence of dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: Over a 3.5-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-5.18], particularly vascular dementia (VaD), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.83). Over a 7-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.12-4.03), particularly VaD, and all-cause mortality (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-2.00). Vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not have any effect modifier on the relationship between reversible cognitive frailty and incident dementia and all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: A model of reversible cognitive frailty was a short- and long-term predictor of all-cause mortality and overall dementia, particularly VaD. The absence of vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not modify the predictive role of reversible cognitive frailty on these outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89.e1-89.e8
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

Keywords

  • Journal Article

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