Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive, coryneform bacterium that causes zoonotic infection mainly in horses and foals. It sometimes affects humans presenting as cavitary pneumonia. Immunocompromised patients, including HIV-infected patients, are more susceptible to R. equi infection. We present 10 cases of R. equi infection in HIV-positive patients admitted to our institute from 1991 to June 2008. Moreover, we have reviewed 272 cases of R. equi infection in HIV-infected persons, published from 1986 through 2008. With respect to the literature data, the R. equi strains isolated in our case series showed lower sensitivity to ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and cotrimoxazole. Prompt diagnosis, early initiation of antiretroviral treatment and combined antimicrobial treatment seem to be effective to eradicate the infection and to improve the outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health