Risk factors and comorbidities in primary biliary cirrhosis: A controlled interview-based study of 1032 patients

M. Eric Gershwin, Carlo Selmi, Howard J. Worman, Ellen B. Gold, Mitchell Watnik, Jessica Utts, Keith D. Lindor, Marshall M. Kaplan, John M. Vierling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, often associated with other autoimmune conditions. Controlled studies have so far provided conflicting data on risk factors and comorbidity rates in PBC. We enrolled patients with PBC (n = 1032) from 23 tertiary referral centers for liver diseases in the United States and random-digit-dialed controls (n = 1041) matched for sex, age, race, and geographical location. Patients and controls were administered a modified version of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES III) questionnaire by trained personnel to evaluate associations between PBC and social, demographic, personal and family medical histories, lifestyle, and reproductive factors and the rates of comorbidity in affected individuals. Data indicate that having a first-degree relative with PBC (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 10.736; 95% confidence interval 4.227-27.268), history of urinary tract infections (AOR 1.511, 95% CI 1.192-1.915), past smoking (AOR 1.569, 95% CI 1.292-1.905), or use of hormone replacement therapies (AOR 1.548, 95% CI 1.273-1.882) were significantly associated with increased risk of PBC. The frequent use of nail polish slightly increased the risk of having PBC. Other autoimmune diseases were found in 32% of cases and 13% of controls (P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1194-1202
Number of pages9
JournalHepatology
Volume42
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

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