A population-based case-control study of gallbladder cancer was conducted in the south-west of Poland, within the framework of the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A total of 73 cases and 186 controls were interviewed using a questionnaire including demographic and socio-economic factors, education, smoking, alcohol, tea and coffee consumption, and past medical history. A validated diet history was used to estimate the daily intake of calories, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, cholesterol, fibres and vitamins C and E. Gallbladder disease was the major determinant of subsequent gallbladder cancer: 41 cases (56%) vs. 15 (8%) controls had a past history of gallbladder disease, corresponding to an odds ratio (OR) of 12.5 (95% confidence interval, 5.8 to 26.6), and the OR was 12.1 for gallbladder problems dating back 20 years or more in the past. There was an inverse relationship with education, the OR being 0.3 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.2) for 13 years of education or more vs. less than 7. Gallbladder cancer risk was positively associated with total calorie intake, with ORs of 1.4, 1.5, 4.1 for the 3 upper quartiles compared with the lowest one (trend, p <0.01). Weaker direct associations were observed for proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterol. There was some suggestion of inverse associations with fibre intake, and a more consistent one with vitamins C and E. These results further quantify the role of gallstones, and suggest that total calorie intake and other dietary factors potentially linked with benign gallbladder conditions are involved in the aetiology of gallbladder cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research