Risk factors for pelvic endometriosis in women with pelvic pain or infertility

Fabio Parazzini, Italo Ardovino, Elisario Struzziero, Ettore Zanardi, Daniela Pungetti, Valerio Mais, Silvio Ajossa, Giovanni Mignemi, Luciano Di Leo, Albino Bianchi, Carlo Campobasso, Gian Franco Scarselli, Gianluca Bracco, Piero Capetta, Carlo Bertulessi, Simona Moroni, Patrizia Mazza, Paolo Vercellini, Pier Giorgio Crosignani, Alfio Bacchi ModenaAlessandro Casa, Marco Massobrio, Cristina Ansaldi, Gian Franco Trossarelli, Maria Teresa Gervasi, Vittorio Marsoni, Secondo Guaschino, Luigi Troiano, Giuseppe Ricci, Paolo Beretta, Massimo Franchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between selected characteristics and risk of pelvic endometriosis. Study design: Eligible for the study were 817 women with primary or secondary infertility or pelvic pain requiring laparoscopy. Of these, 393 were included for infertility and 424 for pelvic pain. Results: A total of 345 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of endometriosis and 472 did not have the disease. Multiparous women had endomertriosos less frequently than nulliparous, the estimated odds ratios (OR) were respectively 0.9 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.5-1.6) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.7) in women reporting one and two or more births. In comparison with women reporting no spontaneous abortion, the estimated OR was 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.5) in those who reported ≥1 miscarriage. In comparison with women reporting menstrual cycles lasting ≥25 days subjects with totally irregular menstrual cycles had a reduced risk of endometriosis (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). No significant association emerged between smoking, age at menarche and risk of endometriosis. Conclusions: this study confirms, with a different methodological approach to previously published studies, that multiparity, a history of abortion and lifelong irregular menstrual pattern decrease the risk of endometriosis in women with pelvic pain and infertility. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-199
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 1999


  • Endometriosis
  • Menstrual characteristics
  • Reproductive factors
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Reproductive Medicine


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