Objectives: To analyze the relationship between selected risk factors and prostate cancer risk in men younger than 60 years, using data from a large, multicenter, case-control study conducted in Italy. Methods: Cases were 219 patients, aged 45 to 59 years, with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were 431 men of the same age group, admitted in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases. Results: A family history of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5), brain cancer (OR = 3.7), and leukemia (OR = 6.2) were associated with prostate cancer risk. A significantly increased risk was found for high education level (OR = 3.3 for 12 or more years versus less than 7 years) and a decreased risk for physical activity (OR = 0.5 for active versus inactive). Coffee consumption was directly associated with risk of prostate cancer (OR = 1.9 for the third versus the first tertile). Bread consumption was directly related (OR = 1.6) and consumption of raw and total vegetables inversely related (OR = 0.6) to prostate cancer risk, although these associations were of borderline significance. No association emerged with marital status, body mass index, history of diabetes, alcohol drinking, and other considered foods. Conclusions: This study confirms that some recognized risk factors, including family history of prostate cancer, high level of education, and low physical activity, are associated with prostate cancer risk in middle-aged men.
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