Risk factors for spread of blepharospasm to craniai-cervical dystonia

G. Defazio, A. Berardelli, G. Abbruzzese, R. De Salvia, V. Coviello, L. Capus, F. Carella, M. T. De Berardinis, G. Galardi, P. Girlanda, S. Maurri, A. A. Jbanese, M. Basciani, L. Bertolasi, R. Liguori, L. Santoro, N. Tambasco, P. Livrea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


To investigate possible risk factors for spread of blepharospasm (BS) in the cranial-cervical area, 159 patients who presented with B S were recruited in 15 centers belonging to the Italian Movement Disorders Study Group. Focal BS was diagnosed in 108 cases (33 males and 75 females) after an average disease duration of 45.3 months (SD, 25); in the remaining 51 patients (9 males and 42 females), segmental dystonia developed 1 to 48 months (mean, 18.2; SD, 14.6) after B S onset. Data were analysed by the Cox's proportional hazards model. Preliminary results of univariate analisys showed that prior edentulism (Hazard Ratio-HR-, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.3 to 6.3; p = 0.011), prior head trauma with loss of consciousness <6 hours (HR, 3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.4; p = 0.005) and age of BS onset (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.1; p = 0.001) were significantly associated with spread of BS, whereas sex, prior eye diseases, cigarette smoking, family history of postural tremor and dystonia did not.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21
Number of pages1
JournalItalian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Risk factors for spread of blepharospasm to craniai-cervical dystonia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Defazio, G., Berardelli, A., Abbruzzese, G., De Salvia, R., Coviello, V., Capus, L., Carella, F., De Berardinis, M. T., Galardi, G., Girlanda, P., Maurri, S., Jbanese, A. A., Basciani, M., Bertolasi, L., Liguori, R., Santoro, L., Tambasco, N., & Livrea, P. (1997). Risk factors for spread of blepharospasm to craniai-cervical dystonia. Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 18(4), 21.