Purpose: High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autograft is effective in high-risk lymphoma, particularly with the addition of rituximab; however, it is associated with risk of secondary malignancy. These issues have been addressed in a series of 1,347 patients with lymphoma treated with a high-dose sequential (HDS) program. Patients and Methods: A total of 1,024 patients with B-cell lymphoma, 234 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 89 patients with T-cell lymphoma were treated with HDS between 1985 and 2005 at 11 Gruppo Italiano Terapie Innovative Linfomi centers. HDS was given as salvage treatment to 707 patients (52%); 655 patients (49%) received a modified HDS, with high-dose cytarabine and two consecutive PBPC harvests. Rituximab-supplemented HDS was given to 523 patients (39%). Results: At a median follow-up of 7 years, the median overall survival (OS) was 16.2 years; in B-cell lymphoma the OS was significantly superior with rituximab HDS compared to HDS alone. The cumulative incidence at 5 and 10 years of secondary myelodysplasia/acute leukemia (sMDS/AL) were 3.09% and 4.52%, respectively, that of solid tumors were 2.54% and 6.79%, respectively. Factors associated with sMDS/AL were male sex and use of the second harvest PBPC for the graft; factors found to be associated with solid tumor were advanced age, post-HDS radiotherapy, and rituximab addition to HDS. Despite the increased risk of solid tumors, rituximab addition to HDS was still associated with survival advantages. Conclusion: This analysis has relevant implications for the design and use of intensive chemoimmunotherapy with autograft. In addition, it offers useful insights toward the understanding and prevention of tumor development.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research