Risk indicators related to peri-implant disease: An observational retrospective cohort study

Pier Paolo Poli, Mario Beretta, Giovanni Battista Grossi, Carlo Maiorana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the influence of potential risk indicators on the development of peri-implant disease. Methods: Overall, 103 patients referred for implant treatment from 2000 to 2012 were randomly enrolled. The study sample consisted of 421 conventional-length (>6 mm) non-turned titanium implants that were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to pre-established clinical and patient-related parameters by a single investigator. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis rank test and a logistic regression model were used for the statistical analysis of the recorded data at the implant level. Results: The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis was made for 173 (41.1%) and 19 (4.5%) implants, respectively. Age (≥65 years), patient adherence (professional hygiene recalls <2/year) and the presence of plaque were associated with higher peri-implant probing-depth values and bleeding-on-probing scores. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (P=0.001), patient adherence (P=0.03), the absence of keratinized tissue (P=0.03), implants placed in pristine bone (P=0.04), and the presence of peri-implant soft-tissue recession (P=0.000) were strongly associated with the event of peri-implantitis. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, patients aged ≥65 years and non-adherent subjects were more prone to develop peri-implant disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and a systematic maintenance-care program are essential for maintaining peri-implant tissue health, especially in older patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-276
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Periodontal and Implant Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Dental implants
  • Implant-supported dental prosthesis
  • Peri-implantitis
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Retrospective study
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery
  • Periodontics


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