Background: Inherited quantitative (type I) deficiency of plasma antithrombin is associated with a high risk of venous thromboembolism, which further increases in pregnancy. Inherited thrombophilia also increases the risk of obstetrical complications, but data on maternal and fetal outcomes in women with antithrombin deficiency are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism and obstetrical complications in women with type I antithrombin deficiency. Methods: In this single-centre, retrospective cohort study, women who had been referred to our Hemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Milan, Italy for a thrombophilia work-up from Jan 1, 1980, to Jan 1, 2018, with type I antithrombin deficiency and who had had at least one pregnancy were included. Women with type II anthithrombin deficiency were excluded from the study. Data on pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism, pregnancy outcomes, and the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) were collected to evaluate the risk of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism and obstetrical complications with or without use of LMWH. Findings: 126 women had been referred to the hospital, of whom 88 (70%) had had at least one pregnancy. Eight were excluded because of referral for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or the puerperium, resulting in 80 (63%)women evaluated for the risk of venous thromboembolism. One woman was excluded because of referral for obstetrical complications, resulting in 87 (69%) evaluated for risk of obstetrical complications. We observed three events of venous thromboembolism in 43 pregnancies in women treated with LMWH (7·0%, 95% CI 1·8–17·8), and 17 events in 146 pregnancies in women who did not receive LMWH (11·6%, 7·2–17·6; relative risk [RR] 0·6, 95% CI 0·2–1·9; p=0·57). The risk of venous thromboembolism without LMWH was 5·4% (95% CI 0·9–16·7) in women with a negative family history of venous thromboembolism, and 11·8% (6·4–19·6) in those with a positive family history of venous thromboembolism. Of the 87 women evaluated for the risk of obstetrical complications, miscarriages occurred in 6 (13%) of 45 pregnant women treated with LMWH and 32 (20%) of 161 women who did not receive LMWH (terminations excluded). Late obstetrical complications occurred in 11 (24%) of women treated with LMWH and nine (6%) in those who did not receive LMWH (RR 4·4, 95% CI 1·9–9·9; p=0·0006). Interpretation: Our results confirm that women with type I antithrombin deficiency have a high risk of first or recurrent venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. The risk of venous thromboembolism is highest in women with a positive family history of the condition, but still relevant in those with a negative family history, suggesting that LMWH prophylaxis should also be considered in these patients. Funding: None.
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