Risks and benefits of aerosolized pentamidine and cotrimoxazole in primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients: A two-year Italian multicentric randomized controlled trial

G. P. Rizzardi, A. Lazzarin, M. Musicco, D. Frigerio, M. Maillard, M. Lucchini, M. Moroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We randomized 220 HIV-1-infected subjects to receive aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg/4 weeks) or orally trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (320-1600 mg/day) for primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and evaluated PCP and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) occurrence and survival. Patients developing toxicity switched to the other regimen. Analysis was on intention-to-treat. At 1 year of study, we observed in the pentamidine group a non-significant excess of PCP (4 vs. 1) and TE (7 vs. 3), and a significant increased death rate (15 vs. 2). After 2 years, no significant differences were observed: adjusted RR estimates for pentamidine vs. cotrimoxazole were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.33-4.37) for PCP (6 cases vs. 5), 1.23 (95% CI, 0.46-3.29) for TE (10 vs. 8) and 1.52 (95% CI, 0.83-2.79) for death (30 vs. 18). Crossovers were more frequent in the cotrimoxazole group (41 vs. 4, P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-131
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infection
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1996


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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