Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of myocardial diseases potentially leading to heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmias, and eventually death. Myocardial dysfunction is associated with different underlying pathological processes, ultimately inducing changes in morphological appearance. Thus, classification based on presenting morphological phenotypes has been proposed, i.e., dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and right ventricular cardiomyopathies. In light of the key diagnostic and prognostic role of morphological and functional features, cardiovascular imaging has emerged as key element in the clinical workflow of suspected cardiomyopathies, and above all, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) represents the ideal technique to be used: thanks to its physical principles, besides optimal spatial and temporal resolutions, incomparable contrast resolution allows to assess myocardial tissue abnormalities in detail. Traditionally, weighted images and late enhancement images after gadolinium-based contrast agent administration have been used to perform tissue characterization, but in the last decade quantitative assessment of pre-contrast longitudinal relaxation time (native T1), post-contrast longitudinal relaxation time (post-contrast T1) and transversal relaxation time (T2), all displayed with dedicated pixel-wise color-coded maps (mapping), has contributed to give precious knowledge insight, with positive influence of diagnostic accuracy and prognosis assessment, mostly in the setting of the hypertrophic phenotype. This review aims to describe the available evidence of the role of mapping techniques in the assessment of hypertrophic phenotype, and to suggest their integration in the routine CMR evaluation of newly diagnosed cardiomyopathies with increased wall thickness.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry