Role of daunosamine and hydroxyacetyl side chain in reaction with iron and lipid peroxidation by anthracyclines

L. Gianni, L. Vigano, C. Lanzi, M. Niggeler, V. Malatesta

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Abstract

Doxorubicin (Adr), daunorubicin (Dnr), and analogs of Adr modified in daunosamine (4'-epi-Adr and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr) were investigated with respect to their reaction with Fe(III) and analyzed for the ability of the corresponding iron complexes to sustain lipid peroxidation of isolated human platelet membranes. When the proportion of iron [25 μM Fe(III)] to Adr was 1:4, almost 50% of the metal was reduced following 1 hour of anaerobic reaction, while only ~14% of the bound iron could be extracted as Fe(II) in the reactions of the Dnr complexes. The reaction of Adr was associated with formation of two main novel anthracyclines. One of the products had lost the C14 atom of the C9 chain and displayed chromatographic features and visible UV light spectra identical to those of authentic 9-dehydroxyacetyl-9-carboxyl-Adr. In complexes of iron and Dnr, no significant anthracycline degradation was observed. Reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) by 4'-epi-Adr (38%) and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr (21.2%) was consistently less than that by Adr. Complexes of the anthracyclines investigated had different abilities to sustain lipid peroxidation, which was blocked (a) by the iron chelators deferoxamine and bathophenanthroline, indicating that Fe(III) and Fe(II) were needed for the reaction, and (b) by ICRF-198, the chelating product that forms intracellularly by hydrolysis of razoxane, which can prevent Adr cardiotoxicity. Peroxidation was not affected by scavengers of reduced oxygen radicals (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and mannitol). The isolated membranes contributed to the reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) and probably represented the main determinant of lipid peroxidation by iron-Dnr. Lipid peroxidation was significantly less for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with Adr. The observed differences may be relevant to the different biologic properties of Adr and its analogs, in particular their different degrees of cardiotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1104-1111
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume80
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 1988

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Anthracyclines
Lipid Peroxidation
Iron
Daunorubicin
Razoxane
daunosamine
Deferoxamine
Membranes
Mannitol
Ultraviolet Rays
Chelating Agents
Catalase
Doxorubicin
Superoxide Dismutase
Reactive Oxygen Species
Hydrolysis
Blood Platelets
Metals
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Role of daunosamine and hydroxyacetyl side chain in reaction with iron and lipid peroxidation by anthracyclines. / Gianni, L.; Vigano, L.; Lanzi, C.; Niggeler, M.; Malatesta, V.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 80, No. 14, 1988, p. 1104-1111.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Doxorubicin (Adr), daunorubicin (Dnr), and analogs of Adr modified in daunosamine (4'-epi-Adr and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr) were investigated with respect to their reaction with Fe(III) and analyzed for the ability of the corresponding iron complexes to sustain lipid peroxidation of isolated human platelet membranes. When the proportion of iron [25 μM Fe(III)] to Adr was 1:4, almost 50{\%} of the metal was reduced following 1 hour of anaerobic reaction, while only ~14{\%} of the bound iron could be extracted as Fe(II) in the reactions of the Dnr complexes. The reaction of Adr was associated with formation of two main novel anthracyclines. One of the products had lost the C14 atom of the C9 chain and displayed chromatographic features and visible UV light spectra identical to those of authentic 9-dehydroxyacetyl-9-carboxyl-Adr. In complexes of iron and Dnr, no significant anthracycline degradation was observed. Reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) by 4'-epi-Adr (38{\%}) and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr (21.2{\%}) was consistently less than that by Adr. Complexes of the anthracyclines investigated had different abilities to sustain lipid peroxidation, which was blocked (a) by the iron chelators deferoxamine and bathophenanthroline, indicating that Fe(III) and Fe(II) were needed for the reaction, and (b) by ICRF-198, the chelating product that forms intracellularly by hydrolysis of razoxane, which can prevent Adr cardiotoxicity. Peroxidation was not affected by scavengers of reduced oxygen radicals (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and mannitol). The isolated membranes contributed to the reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) and probably represented the main determinant of lipid peroxidation by iron-Dnr. Lipid peroxidation was significantly less for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with Adr. The observed differences may be relevant to the different biologic properties of Adr and its analogs, in particular their different degrees of cardiotoxicity.",
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T1 - Role of daunosamine and hydroxyacetyl side chain in reaction with iron and lipid peroxidation by anthracyclines

AU - Gianni, L.

AU - Vigano, L.

AU - Lanzi, C.

AU - Niggeler, M.

AU - Malatesta, V.

PY - 1988

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N2 - Doxorubicin (Adr), daunorubicin (Dnr), and analogs of Adr modified in daunosamine (4'-epi-Adr and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr) were investigated with respect to their reaction with Fe(III) and analyzed for the ability of the corresponding iron complexes to sustain lipid peroxidation of isolated human platelet membranes. When the proportion of iron [25 μM Fe(III)] to Adr was 1:4, almost 50% of the metal was reduced following 1 hour of anaerobic reaction, while only ~14% of the bound iron could be extracted as Fe(II) in the reactions of the Dnr complexes. The reaction of Adr was associated with formation of two main novel anthracyclines. One of the products had lost the C14 atom of the C9 chain and displayed chromatographic features and visible UV light spectra identical to those of authentic 9-dehydroxyacetyl-9-carboxyl-Adr. In complexes of iron and Dnr, no significant anthracycline degradation was observed. Reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) by 4'-epi-Adr (38%) and 3'-N-acetyl-Adr (21.2%) was consistently less than that by Adr. Complexes of the anthracyclines investigated had different abilities to sustain lipid peroxidation, which was blocked (a) by the iron chelators deferoxamine and bathophenanthroline, indicating that Fe(III) and Fe(II) were needed for the reaction, and (b) by ICRF-198, the chelating product that forms intracellularly by hydrolysis of razoxane, which can prevent Adr cardiotoxicity. Peroxidation was not affected by scavengers of reduced oxygen radicals (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and mannitol). The isolated membranes contributed to the reduction of anthracycline-bound Fe(III) and probably represented the main determinant of lipid peroxidation by iron-Dnr. Lipid peroxidation was significantly less for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with 4'-epi-Adr or 3'-N-acetyl-Adr than for complexes of iron with Adr. The observed differences may be relevant to the different biologic properties of Adr and its analogs, in particular their different degrees of cardiotoxicity.

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