The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) plays a major role in binding and regulating the circulating and tissue levels of the mitogenic peptide insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). IGF2/IGF2R interaction influences cell growth, survival, and migration in normal tissue development, and the deregulation of IGF2R expression has been associated with growth-related disease and cancer. IGF2R overexpression has been implicated in heart and muscle disease progression. Recent research findings suggest novel approaches to target IGF2R action. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the IGF2R structure and pathways related to muscle homeostasis.