Background: The optimal treatment of leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is still unclear, especially in the metastatic and/or recurrent setting. We herein evaluated the long-term outcome after aggressive management. Methods: Eleven patients underwent surgery for primary LMS of the IVC between 2000 and 2012. The clinical, pathological, and survival data were reviewed. Results: The IVC was managed by graft replacement in four cases, primary repair in four, and ligation in three. The R0 resection rate was 64%. The median follow-up was 60 months. Nine patients developed distant relapse, two of them concomitant local recurrence; no exclusive local recurrence was observed. The 3- and 5-year distant recurrence free survival were 30% and 10%, respectively. The 3- and 5-year overall-survival (OS) were 77.8%. The presence of residual disease after surgery (P = 0.024) and the time to recurrence (P = 0.033) were associated with the OS in a univariate analysis. The time to recurrence was related to the post-metastases survival (P = 0.032). Conclusions: An adequate surgery minimizes the risk of local recurrence and remains the main treatment for primary LMS of the IVC. Nevertheless, the rate of distant metastases remains extremely high. An aggressive surgical policy may be of benefit to selected patients with metastatic disease. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:44–49.
- inferior vena cava
ASJC Scopus subject areas