Role of T1 mapping as a complementary tool to T2 for non-invasive cardiac iron overload assessment

Camilla Torlasco, Elena Cassinerio, Alberto Roghi, Andrea Faini, Marco Capecchi, Amna Abdel-Gadir, Cristina Giannattasio, Gianfranco Parati, James C. Moon, Maria D. Cappellini, Patrizia Pedrotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. Methods In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A “moving window” approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. Results The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, <20ms, r2 = 0.92; 2) T2* = 20-30ms, r2 = 0.48; 3) T2*>30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*<20ms had low T1; among those with T2*>20ms, 38% had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. Conclusions In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0192890
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2018

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iron overload
Iron Overload
Iron
iron
thalassemia
beta-Thalassemia
Linear Models
blood
Siderosis
Blood
Linear regression
heart failure
Cause of Death
regression analysis
Heart Failure
Regression Analysis
death
therapeutics
Regression analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Role of T1 mapping as a complementary tool to T2 for non-invasive cardiac iron overload assessment. / Torlasco, Camilla; Cassinerio, Elena; Roghi, Alberto; Faini, Andrea; Capecchi, Marco; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Giannattasio, Cristina; Parati, Gianfranco; Moon, James C.; Cappellini, Maria D.; Pedrotti, Patrizia.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 2, e0192890, 01.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Torlasco, Camilla ; Cassinerio, Elena ; Roghi, Alberto ; Faini, Andrea ; Capecchi, Marco ; Abdel-Gadir, Amna ; Giannattasio, Cristina ; Parati, Gianfranco ; Moon, James C. ; Cappellini, Maria D. ; Pedrotti, Patrizia. / Role of T1 mapping as a complementary tool to T2 for non-invasive cardiac iron overload assessment. In: PLoS One. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 2.
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abstract = "Background Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. Methods In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A “moving window” approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. Results The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, <20ms, r2 = 0.92; 2) T2* = 20-30ms, r2 = 0.48; 3) T2*>30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*<20ms had low T1; among those with T2*>20ms, 38{\%} had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. Conclusions In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.",
author = "Camilla Torlasco and Elena Cassinerio and Alberto Roghi and Andrea Faini and Marco Capecchi and Amna Abdel-Gadir and Cristina Giannattasio and Gianfranco Parati and Moon, {James C.} and Cappellini, {Maria D.} and Patrizia Pedrotti",
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AU - Torlasco, Camilla

AU - Cassinerio, Elena

AU - Roghi, Alberto

AU - Faini, Andrea

AU - Capecchi, Marco

AU - Abdel-Gadir, Amna

AU - Giannattasio, Cristina

AU - Parati, Gianfranco

AU - Moon, James C.

AU - Cappellini, Maria D.

AU - Pedrotti, Patrizia

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N2 - Background Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. Methods In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A “moving window” approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. Results The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, <20ms, r2 = 0.92; 2) T2* = 20-30ms, r2 = 0.48; 3) T2*>30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*<20ms had low T1; among those with T2*>20ms, 38% had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. Conclusions In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.

AB - Background Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. Methods In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A “moving window” approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. Results The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, <20ms, r2 = 0.92; 2) T2* = 20-30ms, r2 = 0.48; 3) T2*>30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*<20ms had low T1; among those with T2*>20ms, 38% had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. Conclusions In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.

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