Role of the contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for the diagnosis of breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: Extramammary breast tumors are quite unusual but they might represent the first semiotic sign of non negative mammography. Thus, the need for an early and accurate diagnosis is crucial, with the purpose of planning and optimize the therapeuthical strategy and consequently to improve the clinical outcome of patients. Methods: Due to the intrinsic characteristics of this technique, contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) lends itself as a useful and reliable tool for a complex diagnosis, since it may simultaneously provide both the data of the mammographic semiotic and the dynamic one of an examination with a contrast medium. Results: The most common radiological signs of this type of lesions are summarized through an analysis of the published literature. The article focuses on the different mammographic semeiotics in primary and secondary malignant lesions in the breast, on the different aspects of metastases deriving from blood and lymphatic spread, as well as on the common analogies between metastatic lesions and fibroadenomas. Moreover, the characteristics of a unique case of breast metastasis from pleural mesothelioma analyzed by CESM are described. Conclusions: On the basis of our experience, CESM could represent an extremely valid method to address a correct diagnosis in complex cases of potentially metastatic lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1360-1366
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of B.U.ON.
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Breast metastases
  • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography
  • Extramammary tumors
  • Pleural mesothelioma
  • Radiological features

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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