Role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension and hypertension-related cardiovascular disease

Gino Seravalle, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A number of cardiovascular disease have been shown to be characterized by a marked increase in sympathetic drive to the heart and the peripheral circulation. This is the case for essential hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, obesity, metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic renal disease. This review focuses on the most recent findings documenting the role of sympathetic neural factors in the development and progression of the hypertensive state as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension-related target organ damage. It also reviews the role of sympathetic neural factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases not necessarily strictly related to the hypertensive state, such as congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, obesity, metabolic syndrome and renal failure. The paper will finally review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions acting on the sympathetic drive. Emphasis will be given to the new approaches, such as renal nerves ablation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation, which have been shown to exert sympathoinhibitory effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-105
Number of pages17
JournalHigh Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Antiadrenergic therapy
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Carotid baroreceptor stimulation
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Renal denervation
  • Renal failure
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Target organ damage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Internal Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

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