Aim of this study is to explore the role of different treatments on the development of secondary malignancies (SMs) in a large cohort of essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. We report the experience of a regional cooperative group in a real-life cohort of 1026 patients with ET. We divided our population into five different groups: group 0, no treatment; group 1, hydroxyurea (HU); group 2, alkylating agents (ALK); group 3, ALK + HU sequentially or in combination; and group 4, anagrelide (ANA) and/or α-interferon (IFN) only. Patients from groups 1, 2, and 3 could also have been treated either with ANA and/or IFN in their medical history, considering these drugs not to have an additional cytotoxic potential. In all, 63 of the 1026 patients (6%) developed 64 SM during the follow-up, after a median time of 50 months (range: 2-158) from diagnosis. In univariate analysis, a statistically significant difference was found only for gender (P = 0.035) and age (P = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, a statistically significant difference was maintained for both gender and age (gender HR1.7 [CI 95% 1.037-2.818] P = 0.035; age HR 4.190 [CI 95% 2.308-7.607] P = 0.0001). The impact of different treatments on SMs development was not statistically significant. In our series of 1026 ET patients, diagnosed and followed during a 30-year period, the different therapies administered, comprising HU and ALK, do not appear to have impacted on the development of SM. A similar rate of SMs was observed also in untreated patients. The only two variables which showed a statistical significance were male gender and age >60 years.
- Journal Article