In heart failure, exercise – induced periodic breathing and end tidal carbon dioxide pressure value during the isocapnic buffering period are two features identified at cardiopulmonary exercise testing strictly related to sympathetic activation. In the present review we analysed the physiology behind periodic breathing and the isocapnic buffering period and present the relevant prognostic value of both periodic breathing and the presence/absence of the identifiable isocapnic buffering period.
- anaerobic threshold
- end tidal CO pressure
- Heart failure
- periodic breathing
- respiratory compensation point
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine