5-FU is a chemotherapy drug commonly used for the treatment of human cancers; however drug resistance represents a major challenge for its clinical application. In the present study, we reporte that rpL3 induced by 5-FU treatment in Calu-6 cells represses CBS transcription and reduces CBS protein stability leading to a decrease of CBS protein levels. rpL3 also regulates negatively the activation of NFκB by preventing NFκB nuclear translocation through IκB-α up-regulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rpL3 significantly enhances the apoptosis of 5-FU treated Calu-6 cells promoting the overexpression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. We finally demonstrate that rpL3 potentiates 5-FU efficacy inhibiting cell migration and invasion. Our results suggest that combination of rpL3 and 5-FU is a promising strategy for chemotherapy of lung cancers lacking functional p53 that are resistant to 5-FU.
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