Safety and effectiveness of deep sedation in pediatric patients undergoing flexible fibroscopy in spontaneous breathing

Federica Tosi, Giorgio Conti, Rossano Festa, Aldo Mancino, Marco Rossi, Antonio Chiaretti, Lavinia Capossela, Antonio Gatto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Invasive diagnostics and minor surgical procedures with deep sedation on pediatric patients, such as fibroscopic examination, have increased over the past decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of an anesthesiological technique, based on the use of midazolam and ketamine, conducted in spontaneous breathing on a population of pediatric patients with suspected tracheobronchial pathologies. Pediatric patients from birth to 18 years old who underwent sedation diagnostic fibroscopy between April 2018 and March 2019, were enrolled. The anesthesiological technique provided was the intravenous administration of midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg in spontaneous breathing using a face mask with support of O2 and air. Vital signs such as Heart rate (HR), Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure (PAS and PAD) and Arterial oxygen saturation were recorded at the beginning of the procedure, 10 minutes and 30 minutes from the start. Other parameter evaluated were patient’s level of consciousness, quality of the procedure, major and minor complications, adequate recovery of the waking state. Sixteen patients were enrolled, 12 males and 4 females aged between 2 days of life and 7 years. Laryngomalacia tracheomalacia, tracheoesophageal fistula, and congenital airway malformations were the most frequent diseases. As for vital signs: the HR has gone from an average value of 133.4 ± 16.26 bpm at T0 to an average value of 129.3 ± 16.55 bpm at T10 and 133.7 ± 17.35 bpm at T30; PAS and PAD had not significant variations. Among drugs available for the fibroscopic examinations, the combined use of intravenous midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg is safe and well tolerated, reducing the anxiety associated with the examination, without major complications. The current literature is lacking in studies that have included such small and low weight patients. It would be interesting to make a comparison between various sedation techniques in order to identify the safest for the pediatric population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-65
Number of pages6
JournalSigna Vitae
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Bronchoscopy
  • Deep
  • Pediatric
  • Sedation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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