Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: State of the art and new perspectives.

Livia Roseti, Valentina Parisi, Mauro Petretta, Carola Cavallo, Giovanna Desando, Isabella Bartolotti, Brunella Grigolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This review is intended to give a state of the art description of scaffold-based strategies utilized in Bone Tissue Engineering. Numerous scaffolds have been tested in the orthopedic field with the aim of improving cell viability, attachment, proliferation and homing, osteogenic differentiation, vascularization, host integration and load bearing. The main traits that characterize a scaffold suitable for bone regeneration concerning its biological requirements, structural features, composition, and types of fabrication are described in detail. Attention is then focused on conventional and Rapid Prototyping scaffold manufacturing techniques. Conventional manufacturing approaches are subtractive methods where parts of the material are removed from an initial block to achieve the desired shape. Rapid Prototyping techniques, introduced to overcome standard techniques limitations, are additive fabrication processes that manufacture the final three-dimensional object via deposition of overlying layers. An important improvement is the possibility to create custom-made products by means of computer assisted technologies, starting from patient's medical images. As a conclusion, it is highlighted that, despite its encouraging results, the clinical approach of Bone Tissue Engineering has not taken place on a large scale yet, due to the need of more in depth studies, its high manufacturing costs and the difficulty to obtain regulatory approval. PUBMED search terms utilized to write this review were: "Bone Tissue Engineering", "regenerative medicine", "bioactive scaffolds", "biomimetic scaffolds", "3D printing", "3D bioprinting", "vascularization" and "dentistry".
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1246-1262
Number of pages17
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 5 2017


  • 3D scaffold
  • Bone Tissue Engineering
  • Maxillofacial defects
  • Rapid Prototyping
  • Vascularization


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