Screening for carriage of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in settings of high endemicity: A position paper from an Italian working group on CRE infections

Simone Ambretti, Matteo Bassetti, Pierangelo Clerici, Nicola Petrosillo, Fabio Tumietto, Pierluigi Viale, Gian Maria Rossolini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: A variety of national and international guidelines exist around the management of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs), but some of these are several years old and do not reflect current epidemiology and they also do not necessarily give pragmatic advice around active surveillance of CREs in countries with a high burden of cases and limited resources. This paper aims to provide a best practice position paper to guide active surveillance in a variety of scenarios in these settings, and discusses which patients should be screened, what methods could be used for screening, and how results might influence infection prevention interventions. Methods: This paper was developed as a result of a series of meetings of expert opinion leaders representing the major infectious disease and infection prevention societies in Italy and having the endorsement of AMCLI (Italian Association of Clinical Microbiology) and SITA (Italian Society for Anti-infective Therapy). There was no attempt to undertake a full systematic review of the evidence, as it was felt that this was inadequate to inform a pragmatic view on the best way forward based on current epidemiology and infection rates. Key recommendations: Key recommendations focus on the urgent need to promote measures to prevent transmission and infection, focusing on high risk patients and clinical areas, as well as outbreak situations. Active surveillance leading to appropriate infection prevention precautions plays a major role in this. Conclusions: There are limited national or international guidelines giving pragmatic advice on the most appropriate measures for active surveillance and management of colonized patients in a high-burden setting such as Italy. While individual hospitals and regions will need to formulate their own policies based on local epidemiology, this position paper attempts to highlight current best practice in this area and provide pragmatic advice for clinicians, infection prevention staff, and healthcare managers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 13 2019


  • Active surveillance
  • Carbapenem-resistant
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Infection control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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