The term thrombophilia describes an increased tendency to develop thrombosis and many laboratory markers with different strengths of association with thrombosis have been identified. The main causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries is venous thromboembolism (VTE) and obstetric complications. During pregnancy and puerperium the risk for VTE increases due to hemostatic imbalance towards a prothrombotic state, and it is further increased in women carriers of thrombophilia; recent studies have also demonstrated an association between thrombophilia and obstetric complications. These complications are, therefore, considered potentially preventable with the prophylactic administration of anticoagulant drugs, although their efficacy is not proven by data from randomized controlled trials. After a systematic comprehensive literature review and using a rigorous methodology, the expert panel formulated recommendations regarding the usefulness of screening for thrombophilia in pregnancy to identify high-risk women and for the management of antithrombotic prophyalxis. When evidence is lacking, consensus-based recommendations are provided.
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