This review is aimed to summarize the latest data regarding pain and nutrition, which have emerged during the second edition of Feed Your Destiny (FYD). Theme presentations and interactive discussions were held at a workshop on March 30, 2017, in Florence, Italy, during the 9th Annual Meeting of Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research, where an international faculty, including recognized experts in nutrition and pain, reported the scientific evidence on this topic from various perspectives. Presentations were divided into two sections. In the initial sessions, we analyzed the outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims pertaining to pain proposed under Regulation EC No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Moreover, we evaluated how the Mediterranean diet can have a potential impact on pain, gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, cancer, and aging. Second, we discussed the evidence regarding vitamin D as a nutraceutical that may contribute to pain control, evaluating the interindividual variability of pain nature and nurture, and the role of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids, and phenolic compounds, with a final revision of the clinical role of nutrition in tailoring pain therapy. The key take-home message provided by the FYD workshop was that a balanced, personalized nutritional regimen might play a role as a synergic strategy that can improve management of chronic pain through a precision medicine approach.