We studied the effects of visual references and the level of illumination on the localization of stimuli flashed briefly near the start of saccades. A translucent shutter made it possible to remove visual references, but admit light, at different times after saccadic onset. The results show that the post-saccadic visual references are not necessary for compression: a consistent compression of verbally reported relative stimulus distances is found at all shutter latencies and at al post-shutter levels of illumination. They also show that positions indicated by blind pointing show no compression except when visual references remain in view for a substantial time after saccades. These results confirm that the visual system uses multiple representations of space and suggest that it weights them differently for different tasks and different viewing conditions. No single map is used exclusively for conscious perception or for motor action, and conscious perception is always subject to compression at the time of saccades.
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