Lung cancer driven by EGF receptor (EGFR)-sensitizing mutations is a new entity that requires a molecular diagnosis. Screening for EGFR mutations should be mandatory in lung cancer tumors for never-smokers regardless of histology, also in adenocarcinomas and large-cell carcinomas regardless of smoking history. EGFR mutations are more frequently found in women than men. Response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with EGFR mutations is very high with significant improvement in progression-free survival. However, the duration of progression-free survival is unpredictable at the individual level. Genetic modifiers, such as the BRCA1/NFKBIA mRNA expression could greatly predict the duration of response and pave the way for development of novel therapeutic interventions.
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