Self-collected urine sampling to study the kinetics of urinary toluene (and o-cresol) and define the best sampling time for biomonitoring

Silvia Fustinoni, Rosa Mercadante, Laura Campo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To study the excretion kinetics of urinary toluene, TOL-U, and o-cresol, o-C, following occupational exposure to toluene in order to define the best time for sample collection, to apply a non-invasive approach based on self-collected urine sampling. Methods: Five rotogravure printing workers exposed to uncontrolled levels of toluene collected spot urine samples over three consecutive working days and the following day of rest. In each sample TOL-U and o-C were measured and kinetics of excretion evaluated. Results: Toluene exposure ranged from 48.3 to 75.3 mg/m3; TOL-U and o-C ranged from 1.4 to 34.6 μg/L and from 0.013 to 1.012 mg/ L. A time course trend was obtained: TOL-U and o-C increased during the shift and peaked at the end of exposure and up to 2 h later, respectively; afterwards they rapidly decreased following apparent first order kinetics. Considering TOL-U, the elimination half-life for the first fast phase was 79 (±35 standard error) min, and for the second slow phase was 1,320 (±1,162) min. For o-C the elimination half-life for the first fast phase was 231 (±48) min. Considering a toluene uptake of 86%, TOL-U and o-C excreted in urine were about 0.0067 and 0.18% of the up taken. Conclusion: Our results support the use of end shift TOL-U as a short term biomarker of occupational exposure to toluene and show the feasibility of self-collected urine sampling to investigate the elimination kinetics of industrial toxics in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)703-713
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Volume82
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Keywords

  • Biological monitoring
  • Kinetics of elimination
  • o-Cresol
  • Occupational exposure
  • Self-monitoring
  • Toluene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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