Study Design This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to distinguish bacterial from viral community-Acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to identify severe cases in children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP. Index test results were compared with those derived from routine diagnostic tests, i.e., white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil percentages, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels. Methods This prospective, multicenter study was carried out in the most important children's hospitals (n = 11) in Italy and 433 otherwise healthy children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP were enrolled. Among cases for whom etiology could be determined, CAP was ascribed to bacteria in 235 (54.3%) children and to one or more viruses in 111 (25.6%) children. A total of 312 (72.2%) children had severe disease. Results CRP and PCT had the best performances for both bacterial and viral CAP identification. The cut-off values with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for the identification of bacterial and viral infections using CRP were ≥7.98 mg/L and ≥7.5 mg/L, respectively. When PCT was considered, the cut-off values with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity were ≥0.188 ng/mL for bacterial CAP and ≥0.07 ng/mL for viral CAP. For the identification of severe cases, the best results were obtained with evaluations of PCT and MR-proANP. However, in both cases, the biomarker cut-off with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (≥0.093 ng/mL for PCT and ≥33.8 pmol/L for proANP) had a relatively good sensitivity (higher than 70%) but a limited specificity (of approximately 55%). Conclusions This study indicates that in children with CAP, sTREM-1, MR-proANP, and MR-proADM blood levels have poor abilities to differentiate bacterial from viral diseases or to identify severe cases, highlighting that PCT maintains the main role at this regard.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)