We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin-and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin-and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed-than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin-and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin-and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin-or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin-and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more active against mucin-IHCCA while, Gemcitabine, Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination, the c-erbB2 blocking antibody and bestatin worked better against mixed-IHCCA. Remarkably, we identified a dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor that both in vitro and in vivo, exerts dramatic antiproliferative effects against both mucin-and mixed-IHCCA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)