Septo-optic dysplasia in childhood: The neurological, cognitive and neuro-ophthalmological perspective

Sabrina G. Signorini, Alice Decio, Cristina Fedeli, Antonella Luparia, Mauro Antonini, Chiara Bertone, Walter Misefari, Giulio Ruberto, Paolo E. Bianchi, Umberto Balottin

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Abstract

Aim We set out to describe 17 patients with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), focusing on the little-explored neurological, cognitive, and neuro-ophthalmological components. A further aim was to identify possible clinical correlations and phenotypic characteristics within the diagnostic spectrum. Method We collected clinical-instrumental data (from the history, general and neurological examination, developmental assessment, and neuro-ophthalmological, neuroradiological, neurophysiological, and endocrinological evaluations) on nine males and eight females (mean age 34.4mo, SD 31.6; range 4mo-9y 6mo) diagnosed with SOD who were referred to our Centre of Child Neuro-ophthalmology between 1999 and 2010. Results We observed a heterogeneous clinical spectrum characterized by nervous system, visual, and endocrine dysfunctions; optic nerve involvement was present in all 17 children, midline brain defects in 14, and cortical developmental malformations in seven. Developmental/cognitive delay and relational and communication difficulties were observed in eight and seven children, respectively, and reduced visual acuity and oculomotor dysfunction were observed in all. Pituitary hormone deficiencies were present in nine children. Interpretation Nervous system involvement emerged as a key feature of SOD. As part of a holistic approach to the disease, particular attention should be paid to this aspect. The emergence of new clinical correlations and correlations between clinical features and three SOD subtypes opens the way for better clarification of this disease and, therefore, more targeted diagnosis, follow-up, and care of affected children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1018-1024
Number of pages7
JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Volume54
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience

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