Sequestration of Voriconazole and Vancomycin Into Contemporary Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuits: An in vitro Study

Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, Karel Allegaert, Birgit C.P. Koch, Fabio Mosca, Dick Tibboel, Enno D. Wildschut

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Bacterial and fungal infections are common and often contribute to death in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Drug disposition is altered during ECMO, and adsorption in the circuit is an established causative factor. Vancomycin and voriconazole are widely used, despite the lack of evidence-based prescription guidelines. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the extraction of voriconazole and vancomycin by the Xenios/Novalung ECMO circuits. Methods: We have set up nine closed-loop ECMO circuits, consisting of four different iLAActivve® kits for neonatal, pediatric, and adult support: three iLA-ActivveMiniLung® petite kits, two iLA-ActivveMiniLung® kits, two iLA-ActivveiLA® kits, and two iLA-Activve X-lung® kits. The circuits were primed with whole blood and maintained at physiologic conditions for 24 h. Voriconazole and vancomycin were injected as a single-bolus age-related dose into the circuits. Pre-membrane (P2) blood samples were obtained at baseline and after drug injection at 2, 10, 30, 180, 360 min, and 24 h. A control sample at 2 min was collected for spontaneous drug degradation testing at 24 h. Results: Seventy-two samples were analyzed in triplicate. The mean percentage of drug recovery at 24 h was 20% for voriconazole and 62% for vancomycin. Conclusions: The extraction of voriconazole and vancomycin by contemporary ECMO circuits is clinically relevant across all age-related circuit sizes and may result in reduced drug exposure in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Article number468
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Publication statusPublished - Aug 27 2020


  • antibiotics
  • antifungals
  • drug disposition
  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • infection
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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