Serum and tissue markers in colorectal cancer: State of art

M. Berretta, L. Alessandrini, C. De Divitiis, G. Nasti, A. Lleshi, R. Di Francia, G. Facchini, C. Cavaliere, C. Buonerba, V. Canzonieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in Western Countries. In the last decade, the survival of patients with metastatic CRC has improved dramatically. Due to the advent of new drugs (irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and target therapies (i.e. bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumab, aflibercept and regorafenib), the median overall survival has risen from about 12 mo in the mid nineties to 30 mo recently. Molecular studies have recently widened the opportunity for testing new possible markers, but actually, only few markers can be recommended for practical use in clinic. In the next future, the hope is to have a complete panel of clinical biomarkers to use in every setting of CRC disease, and at the same time: 1) to receive information about prognostic significance by their expression and 2) to be oriented in the choice of the adequate treatment. Moreover, molecular analyses have shown that the natural history of all CRCs is not the same. Individual patients with same stage tumors may have different long-term prognosis and response to therapy. In addition, some prognostic variables are likely to be more important than others. Here we review the role of serum and tissue markers according to the recently published English literature. This paper is an extension of the article “Biological and clinical markers in colorectal cancer: state of art” by Cappellani A published in Jan 2010. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-116
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Colorectal cancer
  • Metastasis
  • Prognosis
  • Serum markers
  • Tissue markers
  • 2 methylacyl coenzyme A racemase
  • aflibercept
  • alpha defensin
  • antineoplastic agent
  • B Raf kinase
  • beta catenin
  • bevacizumab
  • cadherin
  • cadherin 17
  • carcinoembryonic antigen
  • CD133 antigen
  • cetuximab
  • cytokeratin
  • epidermal growth factor receptor
  • irinotecan
  • microRNA
  • mismatch repair protein
  • mucin
  • oxaliplatin
  • panitumumab
  • protein p53
  • regorafenib
  • special AT rich sequence binding protein 2
  • transcription factor
  • transcription factor Cdx2
  • transcription factor Snail
  • tumor marker
  • unclassified drug
  • villin
  • vimentin
  • cancer classification
  • cancer prognosis
  • cancer survival
  • cause of death
  • cell adhesion
  • cell growth
  • cell survival
  • colorectal cancer
  • colorectal surgery
  • epithelial mesenchymal transition
  • human
  • immunohistochemistry
  • in situ hybridization
  • medical decision making
  • medical literature
  • metastasis potential
  • microsatellite instability
  • molecularly targeted therapy
  • overall survival
  • protein expression
  • Review
  • surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry
  • tumor vascularization
  • blood
  • colorectal tumor
  • metabolism
  • pathology
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Colorectal Neoplasms
  • Humans


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