Serum and tissue markers in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma: Clinical and prognostic implications

M. Berretta, C. Cavaliere, L. Alessandrini, B. Stanzione, G. Facchini, L. Balestreri, T. Perin, V. Canzonieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


HCC represents the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options for advanced HCC remain limited and unsuccessful, resulting in a poor prognosis. Despite the major advances achieved in the diagnostic management of HCC, only one third of the newly diagnosed patients are presently eligible for curative treatments. Advances in technology and an increased understanding of HCC biology have led to the discovery of novel biomarkers. Improving our knowledge about serum and tissutal markers could ultimately lead to an early diagnosis and better and early treatment strategies for this deadly disease. Serum biomarkers are striking potential tools for surveillance and early diagnosis of HCC thanks to the non-invasive, objective, and reproducible assessments they potentially enable. To date, many biomarkers have been proposed in the diagnosis of HCC. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy, characterized by early lymph node involvement and distant metastasis, with 5-year survival rates of 5%-10%. The identification of new biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic or predictive value is especially important as resection (by surgery or combined with a liver transplant) has shown promising results and novel therapies are emerging. However, the relatively low incidence of CCA, high frequency of co-existing cholestasis or cholangitis (primary sclerosing cholangitis -PSC- above all), and difficulties with obtaining adequate samples, despite advances in sampling techniques and in endoscopic visualization of the bile ducts, have complicated the search for accurate biomarkers. In this review, we attempt to analyze the existing literature on this argument.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14192-14220
Number of pages29
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Metastasis
  • Prognosis
  • Serum markers
  • Tissue markers
  • alpha fetoprotein
  • alpha levo fucosidase
  • carbonyl reductase
  • glypican 3
  • lysosome enzyme
  • squamous cell carcinoma antigen
  • vasculotropin
  • tumor marker
  • advanced cancer
  • bile duct
  • bile duct carcinoma
  • cancer incidence
  • cancer prognosis
  • cause of death
  • controlled study
  • distant metastasis
  • early diagnosis
  • human
  • human tissue
  • liver cell carcinoma
  • liver transplantation
  • lymph node metastasis
  • predictive value
  • Review
  • survival rate
  • bile duct tumor
  • liver tumor
  • mortality
  • pathology
  • prognosis
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms


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