Serum lipoprotein composition and vitamin D metabolite levels in clinically isolated syndromes: Results from a multi-center study

Richard W. Browne, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Dana Horakova, Mary Lou Bodziak, Miriam Tamaño-Blanco, Darlene Badgett, Michaela Tyblova, Manuela Vaneckova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Niels Bergsland, Deepa P. Ramasamy, Jesper Hagemeier, Jun Qu, Eva Havrdova, Murali Ramanathan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context High serum cholesterol is adversely associated with clinical and imaging disease progression outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), the earliest stage of MS. Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Objectives To investigate the mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of cholesterol in CIS and to determine the role of the nexus between the vitamin D3 (D3) and cholesterol pathways. Design Multi-center, prospective, longitudinal prospective study. Setting University hospital multiple sclerosis centers. Intervention Serum samples were obtained prior to any treatment from study subjects. Methods Serum obtained prior to any treatment from 172 CIS patients enrolled in a multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study (119 females: 53 males, age: 28.1 ± SD 8.1 years) were analyzed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), ApoAII, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein-a. Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), 1,25-dihydroxy D3, and 24,25-dihydroxy D3 were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Greater levels of HDL-C biomarkers (e.g., HDL-C itself, ApoAI, ApoAII and paroxonase arylesterase activity) and LDL-C biomarkers (e.g., LDL-C itself, Apo B) were associated with greater 25(OH)D3. The effects of HDL-C biomarkers were stronger than those of LDL-C. Free cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels were positively associated with higher 25(OH)D3 levels. Cholesterol palmitate was particularly potent. The nexus between the D3 and cholesterol pathways was proximal to, or in linkage disequilibrium with, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase DHCR7 rs1790349, endothelial lipase LIPG rs4939883 and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 PCSK9 rs11206510. Conclusions The associations between cholesterol biomarkers and vitamin D metabolite levels in CIS are consistent with the biochemical inter-dependence between the two pathways. Cholesterol biomarkers should be considered for inclusion as covariates when assessing vitamin D levels in CIS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-433
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Cholesterol
  • Clinically isolated syndromes
  • Environmental factor
  • Interactions
  • Lipid
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Medicine


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