Serum sex steroids depict a nonlinear U-shaped association with high-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy

Andrea Salonia, Firas Abdollah, Umberto Capitanio, Nazareno Suardi, Alberto Briganti, Andrea Gallina, Renzo Colombo, Matteo Ferrari, Giulia Castagna, Patrizio Rigatti, Francesco Montorsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To assess the association between preoperative serum total testosterone (tT), 17β-estradiol (E 2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and tT-E 2 ratio values with high-risk prostate cancer (as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network practice guidelines) at radical prostatectomy. Experimental Design: Serum E 2, tT, and SHBG were dosed the day before surgery (7:00-11:00 am) in a cohort of 724 candidates to radical prostatectomy. Restricted cubic spline functions tested the association between predictors (i.e., model 1: age, body mass index, and serum tT, E 2, and SHBG levels; model 2: tT-E 2values instead of tT and E 2 levels) and high-risk prostate cancer. Results: Low-, intermediate-, or high-risk prostate cancer was found in 251 (34.7%), 318 (43.9%), and 155 (21.4%) patients, respectively. Patients in the high-risk class showed the lowest tT, E 2, and tT-E 2 ratio values (all P ≤ 0.02). At univariate analysis, only age, tT, E 2, and tT-E 2 ratio values were significantly associated with high-risk prostate cancer (all P ≤ 0.006). At multivariate analyses considering model 1 variables, age (P = 0.03), serum tT (all P <0.001), and E 2 (all P ≤ 0.01) were associated with high-risk prostate cancer; only tT-E 2 ratios achieved independent predictor status for high-risk prostate cancer (all P <0.001) when considering model 2. Both the lowest and the highest tT, E 2, and tT-E 2 values depicted a nonlinear U-shaped significant association with high-risk prostate cancer. Conclusions: These data showed that preoperative serum sex steroids are independent predictors of high-risk prostate cancer, depicting a nonlinear U-shaped association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3648-3657
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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