Serum vitamin D deficiency and risk of hospitalization for heart failure: Prospective results from the Moli-sani study

Moli-sani Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and aims: Evidence indicates that Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although findings on risk of heart failure (HF) are controversial. We investigated the relationship between serum Vitamin D and the incidence of hospitalization for HF in a large prospective cohort of Italian adults. Methods and results: 19,092 (49% men, age range 35–99 years) HF-free individuals from the Moli-sani study, with complete data on serum Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin) levels and incident hospitalized HF, were analysed. The cohort was followed up for a median of 6.2 years. Baseline serum Vitamin D levels were categorized in deficient (<10 ng/mL), insufficient (10–29 ng/mL), and normal (≥30 ng/mL) Incident cases of hospitalization for HF were identified by linkage with the regional hospital discharge registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox-proportional hazard models. The prevalence of normal, insufficient or deficient levels of Vitamin D was 12.2%, 79.6% and 8.2%, respectively. During follow-up, 562 admissions to hospital for HF were identified. The incidence of HF was 1.6%, 2.9% and 5.3%, respectively in subjects with normal, insufficient and deficient levels of Vitamin D. After multivariable analysis, individuals with deficiency of Vitamin D had a higher risk of hospitalization for HF (HR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.06–2.43) than those with normal levels. Further adjustment for subclinical inflammation did not substantially change the association between Vitamin D deficiency and HF. Conclusion: Deficiency of Vitamin D was associated, independently of known HF risk factors, with an increased risk of hospitalization for HF in an Italian adult population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-307
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2018


  • Biomarkers
  • Heart failure
  • Hospitalization
  • Inflammation
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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