Sex as a determinant of relapse incidence and progressive course of multiple sclerosis

Tomas Kalincik, Vino Vivek, Vilija Jokubaitis, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Maria Trojano, Guillermo Izquierdo, Alessandra Lugaresi, Francois Grand'Maison, Raymond Hupperts, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Roberto Bergamaschi, Gerardo Iuliano, Raed Alroughani, Vincent Van Pesch, Maria Pia Amato, Mark Slee, Freek Verheul, Ricardo Fernandez-Bolanos, Marcela Fiol, Daniele La SpitaleriEdgardo Cristiano, Orla Gray, Jose Antonio Cabrera-Gomez, Vahid Shaygannejad, Joseph Herbert, Steve Vucic, Merilee Needham, Tatjana Petkovska-Boskova, Carmen Adella Sirbu, Pierre Duquette, Marc Girard, Pierre Grammond, Cavit Boz, Giorgio Giuliani, Maria Edite Rio, Michael Barnett, Shlomo Flechter, Fraser Moore, Bhim Singhal, Elizabeth Alejandra Bacile, Maria Laura Saladino, Cameron Shaw, Eli Skromne, Dieter Poehlau, Norbert Vella, Timothy Spelman, Danny Liew, Trevor J. Kilpatrick, Helmut Butzkueven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in the incidence of multiple sclerosis relapses; assess the relationship between sex and primary progressive disease course; and compare effects of age and disease duration on relapse incidence. Annualized relapse rates were calculated using the MSBase registry. Patients with incomplete data or -12). However, the female-to-male ratio in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis and zero relapses in any given year was double that of the patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Patient age was a more important determinant of decline in relapse incidence than disease duration (P <10-12). Females are predisposed to higher relapse activity than males. However, this difference does not explain the markedly lower female-to-male sex ratio in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Decline in relapse activity over time is more closely related to patient age than disease duration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3609-3617
Number of pages9
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • MSBase
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Prediction
  • Risk factors
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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